Monday, January 6, 2020

January 2020: "A New Decade...A New Beginning"

It's hard to believe that not only are we approaching a new year, we are approaching yet another new decade. It seems like it was only yesterday, we were celebrating "The New Millennium". Our auto industry has not only survived the "ups and downs" for over 100 years, it has continually evolved over time.

Unlike many ideas, industries, or "fads" over the years, our industry still continues to evolve and expand into one of the leading industries in the world. Along with this continued growth and evolution comes the need and excitement for more...each and every year. 

It requires us to continually keep up with the competition and the desire to do something different with new ideas and ways to stay one step ahead. It also requires us to have a solid base of people, standards, guidelines, processes and a reputation just to stay in business.

In last month's issue of ACG "Smart Parts" we took a look back on the year as we do each year in December to gather and research the facts of what, in this case, 2019, revealed in our industry. We looked at the results that affected the automotive dealership, including and especially our parts departments.

In this issue, we will combined what we learned in 2019 along with a personal perspective that will collectively give us a "hands on" view of what happened in 2019 along with the facts and research on our industry that we collected last month. 

Even though we shared the research and facts of what 2019 brought us in last month's issue, I believe what's even more important information to share is what we actually experienced in 2019. Experiences from the people that are actually out there, day in and day out, working in our industry.

In my opinion, these personal experiences have led me to believe that we need to focus and change our way of thinking going forward. The "playing field" has changed and we need to have a new game plan to be successful and that game plan involves people, not just market swings.

Throughout my travels in 2019, I have spoken with and shared many experiences with literally thousands of people in our automotive industry. These people include; manufacturers, industry analysts, consultants, aftermarket vendors, dealer principle, department managers and dealership employees at every level.

In my opinion, the most important people in our industry are our people. The people working behind the scenes that are often forgotten are the ones actually driving the "engine" to our business. Sales people, service advisors, service & body technicians, parts staff, office staff, BDC staff, receptionists, greeters and shuttle drivers are the ones making it all happen.

I guess my above view is important to me because I've worked in those same trenches for many years in fixed operations from the counter level all the way up to fixed operations management. With these combined "in the trenches" experiences and current position, I believe I am pretty qualified to share the following overall perspective....

Here We Go!

As we start to combine the past and a look into the future with the research and facts learned and my personal perspective, we will look at, in my opinion, the most important areas that will determine and impact our success going forward, especially in the fixed operations.

People:

"A New Decade...A New Beginning" can not start without people, especially those mentioned above that are working in the trenches. In my opinion, our employees are not only the most important asset we have, we also have to look at how important hiring, training, developing and keeping them is. 

The hiring, training, developing and the retaining of all our employees starts with the proper pay plan. If you don't know it already, people "work" their pay plans whether "working" the clock, if paid by the hour, or whatever commission pay plan their on.

The challenge is to develop pay plans that "work" for both the employee and the dealer. Incentives for hourly employees will just result in "punching in and punching out", while incentives, for all employees involved, whether directly or indirectly will drive better results. Even office staff could benefit from incentives in their roles.

I also believe that all managers and direct sales staff should include a hiring process to include Personality Profiles to get the right "fit" on their behavior patterns to their environments that meet the position. Even though conducting Personality Profile are not a reason or requirement for hiring employees, it's a great tool to match the individual to the right position.

Technicians...we all know that it's difficult to find and keep technicians, so why are we still sticking to the old ways of trying to find them? With our older, experienced generation of technicians slowly fading away, we should be using their experience and knowledge to train younger, newer technicians. 

Their brains are our biggest asset as we could develop newer pay plans for them to train new technicians. The end result could perhaps be more billable hours on a number of younger technicians to offset their training expense. Developing the right apprenticeship program could benefit all involved and could actually lengthen the career of the older more experienced technicians.

Parts staff should also have incentives built in their pay plans as opposed to the normal salary and/or hourly based pay plans. Believe it or not, parts counter staff are salespeople and they should have individual and department incentives based on dealership goals and expectations.

Overall, dealership employee wages and overall compensation continue to grow each year. With this continued increase with wages and compensation in all dealership positions, the importance of hiring the right person for the right position can't go without notice.  

Customers:

Some may agree or disagree, but in many ways, our customers have changed over the last several years. They are more informed with social media in the areas of product knowledge, pricing, selection, demands and most important...their time. Customer retention is nothing new, but what is most surprising to me is that no one really talks to the customer!

In many dealerships that I have witnessed, the separation between employees and customers has gotten even worse with the evolution of "Express Service". Less time with the customer and the attitude of "get it in and get it out" has resulted in the customer feeling the same way..."get me in and get me out!"

The sad thing about this is that customer "avoidance" has replaced customer "engagement" as the separation of employee and customer evolves. To me, there is nothing more important than the "customer and client" relationship.

The Sales Department is not exempt either as I see more and more vehicle "spot deliveries", on line vehicle purchases, satellite vehicle purchases, etc. I realize customers want convenience and in some cases avoid the sales experience altogether, but eventually, in my opinion, we are just saying "Hello" and "Good Bye" to our customers at the same time.

In many dealerships that I have witnessed, customers are "recognized", but not really "known". By this I mean that many dealership employees seem to acknowledge and recognize their customers, but not many really "know" their customers. In some cases, and most shocking, many dealership employees actually try to "avoid" their customers.

Even though I don't necessarily agree with performing a personality profile on all our employees, I do believe that every dealer employee should be exposed to some form of interactive training that will help them "get to know" their customers. Wow!...what a concept! After all, gaining customer trust by engaging them is the best "closing tool" there is.

The Manufacturers:

If there is a number one standout that never seems to never stop evolving and changing, in my opinion is the vehicle manufacturer. Focuses ranging from manufacturer incentives for loyalty, compliance and requirements have seem to replace basic support to the dealer. 

Even though some manufacturers requirements and incentives vary, selling vehicles and parts are what they are in business for. It just seems to be getting harder and harder to meet their guidelines as they add more requirements and compliance between all departments to push volume on their end. It's much tougher today to be a smaller dealer then it was years ago.

In my opinion and from what I have witnessed in many dealerships, especially in parts, maybe we should just forget about compliance, which I call "obedience" and go back to the way we used to do it years ago. You can never "out buy" your growing obsolescence. That math doesn't support the facts, especially if you are a smaller dealership.

In other words, why should I buy another $10,000.00 in parts I don't need just to gain $300.00 - $400.00 in discounts, accruals and return reserves resulting in overstocking parts that I won't sell just to return them down the road?

In many cases, you would be better off buying parts that you do need as recommended by your own D.M.S., thus avoiding overstocking parts and building obsolescence. The expense from acquisition and holding costs will far, far outweigh any incentive the manufacturer may offer. Do the math and you just may realize that incentives may actually be costing you.

 Recommendation: Don't Become The Manufacturer's Second Warehouse!

The Parts Department:

This past year was a very busy year for me in the area of parts training and for good reason. In my opinion, dealers are becoming more and more interested in their Parts Departments and the need for additional training for their Parts Managers.

Even though every Parts Manager that I have met in the past and especially this past year are extremely talented, intelligent and in the right position, there is definitely a training void. With that said, what's missing in most cases is what they don't know.

Many Parts Managers have not received the proper training on the basics, which I call "Parts 101". Parts Managers have seemed to go "under the radar" by dealers when it comes down to training compared to training with other dealer managers and departments.

The results of this "lack of training", I'm seeing parts inventories accruing more obsolescence and overstocked quantities than I have ever seen before. In fact, recent studies on a large number of dealers revealed that over 25% of dealers sampled have obsolescence in excess of 25% and another 25% in overstocked parts.

Obsolete meaning parts that have no sales over 12 months, and overstocked quantities meaning active parts with too many parts than needed to meet demand. In other words, I may have 10 sets of brake pads of one particular part number when only 4 sets are needed to meet proper stocking levels.

I'm also seeing more and more Parts Managers not utilizing their own Dealer Management System, (D.M.S.) to it's full potential. Especially if you are a dealer that is enrolled in the manufacturers' Vendor Managed Inventory, (V.M.I.). More and more Parts Managers are relying solely on their manufacturer's to determine what they should stock and how many.

Unfortunately, relying solely on the manufacturer to determine what to stock and at what stocking level results in too much of what we don't need and not enough of what we do need. Utilizing the in house D.M.S. Stocking Criteria, (if set up properly) in conjunction with the manufacturer's V.M.I. is essential.

This is why I've been so busy lately as many Parts Managers don't even know how to input the right criteria in their own system. Criteria such as Phase-In/Phase/Out Parameters, Low and High Days Supply, (Best Reorder Point & Best Stocking Level), Source Ranking by Piece Sales to even create an accurate stock order.

Once again, this is not the fault of the Parts Manager as the lack of proper training is where the problem lies. Every single Parts Manager that I have "shared the proper information" with, (I don't call it training), has benefited and on their way to a more balanced inventory and increased "First Time Off Shelf Fill Rates".

After All..."How Do We Know What We Don't Know?"


The Bottom Line:

Even though change is inevitable, we all have to adapt to the necessary changes that we listed above. We also have to make a profit to stay in business no matter what the changes bring. Thus, the importance of our first topic of "People".

If we decide to run our business as usual without recognizing our new generation of hires, our current employees wants and needs, the basics of customer interaction and creating relationships, then we just might as well hang it all up.

We also have to hire, pay, educate and train our managers to do what they were hired to do. Today's dealership manager has to have "ownership" in mind as if their individual department was their own business. This means that dealers need to provide the proper training and hold them accountable.

Sales, gross and expenses have to be managed to industry and dealership guidelines, measured and managed every day, month and year. Today's dealership manager can longer be just "the next one in line", or because they've been an employee for many years, or perhaps even "bought for a lower price".

In Perspective:

Our business has changed a lot over the years, but in some ways, it hasn't changed at all. The people I have met and worked with have not changed, they all want the same things, have similar values and work hard. The "lingo" as well hasn't changed over the years as you can always tell if someone works in our industry just by this unique language.

Lastly, Service Absorption is more important than ever going forward as the Fixed Operations role in overall dealership survival can and could be the difference of the name on the front of the building. Even the higher volume sales stores can't guaranty the future of sales. Customers can and always will determine our ultimate success in the future...

Happy New Year From ACG "Smart Parts"!!!

If you want to learn more about ACG Smart Parts "Eight Habits of Highly Successful Parts Managers", visit our website @ www.smartpartstraining.com, or...just pick up the phone and call me at (786) 521 - 1720...After all, not knowing is not worth not "fixing" it...






























Tuesday, December 10, 2019

December 2019: "The Year In Review...Up Or Down?"

For many of us, we  seem to look forward to the end of the current year with high anticipation for the new year ahead. A chance to look back and to look ahead seems to bring back memories and at the same time...new visions of the year ahead.

This is truly the case here at ACG "Smart Parts" as we end each year with our December issue focused on looking back on the current year that was 2019 and then our January issue focused on the new year ahead and what we may expect in 2020.

This month's issue will be highlighted and focused on industry analysts' presenting their facts, figures and trends that shaped 2019 and the results we experienced throughout the year. In my opinion, the "ups and downs" and trends that we experienced in 2019 could possibly be signs to come in the new year ahead.

Our first resource comes from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, (www.bea.gov) as I wanted to first research and find out how we, as a country fare with other countries in the global market. With all the recent trade talks and negotiations, I was curious to see some trends and results that may indicate or show where we are compared to other countries.

On a global standpoint, 2019 had the United States as the "nominal" leader, (currency) in the world on Gross Domestic Product, (GDP). Even though the United States experienced a total GDP growth, through November, of 2.35%, compared to China at 6.14%, the "nominal" growth of over $21 Billion far exceeded any other country.

More impressive to me than the growth of $21 Billion, was total share of that "nominal" amount which was 24.8% of the total "nominal" growth currency or dollars in the whole world. Following the United States in this category were China, Japan, Germany and India coming in at number five.

The U.S Bureau of Economic Analysis also reported on Foreign Direct Investments in the United States as follows;

"Expenditures by foreign direct investors to acquire, establish, or expand on U.S. businesses totaled $296.4 Billion Dollars in 2018, up 8.7% over $272.8 Billion Dollars in 2017"... 

Further predictions into 2019 by years end are estimated to top $300 Billion Dollars by many industry analysts, which means that the trend continues to shift investments from overseas back into the Good Old USA....

So, What Does This All Mean Back Here In The Good Old USA?....

The answer to this question leads us to our second resource in this year end quest of our 2019 "Year In Review...Up Or Down?" Our second resource drills down and focuses on information, facts and trends that relate directly to our automotive parts industry in general, both dealership and aftermarket parts market areas.

According to IBISworld, auto parts revenues are "up" over $73 Billion Dollars in 2019, which represents a 0.3% increase over 2018 even though the number of parts retail businesses went "down" by approximately 1,400 in the U.S. while employment went "up" by approximately 140,000!!

Our first example of the "ups and downs" of what has happened this past year! Even though we see a drop in the number of businesses, we can actually see an overall increase in employment through this obvious consolidation, increased efficiency and expansion in overall business operations.

In addition, consumer confidence levels have reached all time highs over the past few years which means that the average consumer has more disposable income. Wages and earnings have also gone "up" in 2019 by .03%, which may also explain why consumer confidence levels continue to grow or remain at high levels.

Our last resource comes from Patrick Manzi, Senior Economist at the National Automotive Dealers Association, (NADA) with his NADA Data Mid-Year Report.

Even though this information and data is from his mid-year report, much of the information is "prorated" to year end trends and predictions until their final report for 2019 is released early next year.

There are currently 16,741 franchised automotive dealers across the country today that achieved combined Light Duty Vehicle Sales in excess of 8.41 Billion Units with sales that topped $518 Billion Dollars, which is "up" from $503 Billion in 2018.

Even though Light Duty New Vehicle Sales, (in units) went "down" and expected to drop at years end by 2%, the increase in sales dollars is directly attributed to the average selling price per new vehicle sold climbing to $36,402.00, which is "up" from the average of $35,249.00 per new unit sold in 2018 and $31,849.00 per new unit sold back in 2013, steadily climbing each your.

Light Duty Trucks once again led the way in sales with 70.3% of all Light Duty Vehicle Sales coming from truck sales. GM has taken over once again at number one with a 16.8% of the market share with Ford coming second at 14.3% of the market share. Toyota fell to number three with 13.7% and FCA, (Fiat/Chrysler) coming in fourth at 12.9%

Even though overall sales have and continue to go "down" by at least 2%, parts and service sales continue to rise and go "up" in 2019 as there were 162 Million Repairs Orders written, including body shop repair orders with total repair order sales over $62 Billion, "up" from $58.4 Billion in 2018.

This steady rise and climb in parts and service sales isn't just a fluke as parts and service sales have continued to rise each year dating back to 2013 when combined parts and service sales were at $42.3 Billion Dollars, which represents a 27.5% increase over the last six years, trending "up" each year. This trend upwards is expected to continue climbing in the years ahead.

Dealership jobs also increased as total dealership employment is "up" to over 1.1 Million Employees. Dealership jobs offered compensation significantly higher than other retail sectors as dealers continue to boast one of the highest average salaries of all industries.

Since 2010, parts and service sales in the average dealership have gone "up" an average of 5.4% per year on an annual basis. In addition to that, parts and service sales as a percentage of total dealership sales is "up" from 12.2% in 2018 to 12.8% in 2019.

Dealers net profits remained at 2.3% of total sales in 2019 as they were in 2018. Dealer net profits have steadily gone "down" since 2013 when dealers net profits were at 2.8% of total sales. Some of the reasons for the decline in net profits include higher wages for qualified employees and decreased profit margins.

Total parts and service sales per repair order is also "up" in 2019 to an average of $311.00 in customer pay and $343.00 in warranty parts and service sales per repair order. Once again, steady climbs each and every year since 2013 as customer pay mechanical and effective labor rates are also "up" to an average of $123.00 per flat rate hour.

Currently there are over 275,000 technicians employed in our automotive dealerships today, mechanical and body shop which brings the average per dealership to just over 16 service and/or body technicians per dealership.. This is definitely one category that we need to see go "up" each year as shop productivity is the "engine" that makes it all happen in the fixed operations.

Average parts inventories are "up" to $441,675.00 in the average automotive dealership, which could be a good thing or a bad thing pending average annual gross and true turns. If the average annual gross and true turns in the average automotive dealership is "down", this would represent a "not so good" thing.

Unfortunately, this information on annual gross and true turns was not available for this issue, but what I do know is that parts obsolescence has been on the "up" swing over the past several years. Dealer parts obsolescence along with overstock quantities have made it much tougher for dealers to achieve expected annual gross and true turns in many dealerships today.

Overall, I believe all the indications are obvious and pointing in the right direction after looking back on 2019. All the key indicators that would give us a peak into 2020 and to whether it will be an "up or down" year are quite evident. Personally?....I always prefer to be "up" beat and positive when looking forward.

Happy Holidays Everyone From ACG "Smart Parts!"

If you want to learn more about ACG Smart Parts "Eight Habits of Highly Successful Parts Managers", visit our website @ www.smartpartstraining.com, or...just pick up the phone and call me at (786) 521 - 1720...After all, not knowing is not worth not "fixing" it...



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Wednesday, November 6, 2019

November 2019: Managing Parts Returns

It's hard to believe that after almost ten years of ACG "Smart Parts" issues, I haven't focused on one of the most important duties & responsibilities of a "Smart Parts" Manager and that would be Managing Parts Returns.

Even though Managing Parts Returns isn't anything new to us, I do believe that it has become much more important than it ever has before. One the main reasons that I believe that it is more important now than ever before is simply because parts obsolescence is growing at higher levels than ever before.

First and foremost, when we start talking about Managing Parts Returns, we have to understand that we had to "order" the parts first place, thus requiring the "return" of the parts in the end. This is why we have to start out the process of Managing Parts Returns with the root causes that lead to parts returns.

In order to manage parts returns, we must have "parts order" policies & procedures first that will limit and control the potential for parts returns. After all, the costs of having to return parts should be reason enough to want to limit and control the overall number of parts returns in the first place.

Managing Parts Returns "back in the day" was much simpler as parts in general had a much longer "life span" than parts do today. For example, the part  number for a set of front brake pads would fit several different vehicle models and for a longer period of time.

Now, we have several different brake pad numbers for the same year and make vehicle model, and for a much shorter period of time, thus reducing the "life span" of these parts in general. Therefore, we can't afford to keep these parts any longer than we have to and "phasing out" these parts much sooner then we ever did in the past.

Not an easy job anymore for sure, but whether we are talking about today or yesteryear, we still have to limit and control the number, amounts, and types of parts returns and it all starts with analyzing the "root causes" of how these parts end up as returns in the first place.

Let's start out by looking at the "types" of parts returns that today's "Smart Parts" Manager has to deal with and then we will look at some of the "root causes" for these returns in the first place. Keep in mind that Parts Returns are always going to be there, but if we can limit and control them, we are saving valuable gross dollars for the dealer, while protecting this valuable asset.

Common Types of Parts Returns: 

Daily Returns:  

These parts returns are usually those parts that we order "as needed", mostly from outside vendors for our Service and Collision Center Customers. Process also includes Standard Accounting Practices and a high degree of communication with the Office Manager to ensure proper sales, cost of sales accounting is maintained.

Weekly Returns:

Weekly parts returns can also include parts that may also include local outside vendors, but it may also be parts ordered more often to replenish "other inventories" other than prime inventory items filled by the manufacturer. Other types of returns may also include batteries, chemicals, tires, dirty core inventories, Collision Center Vendor returns, and perhaps even Special Order Parts with return requirements from the manufacturer.
 
Monthly & Annual Returns:

These are the parts returns that tend to cost the most as they tend to be controlled mostly by the manufacturer. They are also the parts returns that tend to go unnoticed with the least amount of control on how they got to the "return pile" in the first place.

Monthly and Annual Returns can also expose many weaknesses within the Parts Department such as; Improper Dealer Management System Set Ups & Controls, "Obedience", not "Compliance" to the manufacturers Vendor Management System's Guidelines, overbuying and overstocking of inventory,  and manual returns of Special Order Parts.

Bottom line is...if we are holding parts for returns, or have an excessive quantity and amount of these parts returns, we need to look at how they got there to begin with. It can also be an area that exposes how the dealers' obsolescence is revealing undesirable results. In order to "Stop The Bleeding" of obsolescence,  we have to stop how it gets there in the first place.

So!...Let's Look At Some Of The "Root Causes" For Parts That We Need To Return

In my opinion, if we really got down to the basics and wondered how we got to the point of having to return parts in the first place, we probably wouldn't have as many. Of course, we will always have to deal with this process of returning parts, but do we really need to have as much as we do now?

In order to limit and control these returns, let's first look at some of the reasons that we have them in the first place.... 
  • Mistakes in Ordering Parts, Whether by Parts Counter Staff, or Improper Information.
  • Parts Manager Training on Proper Dealer Management System Set Ups & Controls such as Phase-In/Phase Out Parameters, Stocking Criteria, (Best Reorder Points & Best Stocking Levels).
  • Parts "Over Ordering" above Best Stocking Levels to take advantage of Manufacturers' Promotions, or trying to avoid "Stock Out" situations.
  • No Parts Ordering Policy on who can order parts in the first place.
  • Lack of a Special Order Policy that doesn't require deposits or prepayment on Customer Pay Special Orders or presetting Service Appointments on all Special Orders.
  • Manufacturers' "Vendor Managed Inventories", (if applicable) setting Stocking Criteria that may meet the manufacturers' Stocking Criteria but not necessarily the dealer's Stocking Criteria.
  • Ineffective, or lack of use of the dealer's Dealer Management System, (DMS) to create in-house stock orders, thus relying solely on the manufacturer for stock replenishment.
  • Manual orders to replenish stocking inventories.
These are just a few areas that can impact the number and amount of parts returns that may be required. Keep in mind, that we haven't even started to talk about the costs and ramifications to the number and amount of these parts returns.

The costs of the number and amount of these parts returns can highly impact and add to parts inventory acquisition and holding costs which alone can amount to 25% - 30% of the total inventory value each year. On top of that, these "root causes" can "chew up" valuable accrual amounts earned through the manufacturer.

Other costs may include "dealer cash" from poor management of parts core returns, warranty parts held for approved return dates and discounts and allowances on parts purchases. Although, the biggest cost to the dealer is yet to be revealed with my next big question...

"Are We Buying Parts Just To Hold Them For Return Down The Road?"   

You heard the question right!...are we just buying parts that the manufacturer may recommend, or maybe that we order ourselves just to gain additional earned discounts & allowances? Only to hold them for a required period of time while it may be "protected" and send them back at no cost? Don't be fooled...there is a severe cost.

One of the biggest "untruths" of buying parts to earn additional discounts is that we really never realize the earned discounts until the parts sell. Even though it may show as 100% profit on the Dealer's Financial Statement...it is just "paper money", unless the the Parts Departments' Gross & True Inventory Turns are at or above industry guidelines of 8 Gross Turns and 5 True Turns respectively.

Which leads me to my next question...

"Are We Buying Parts Without Regard Because They May Will Be Protected By The Manufacturer Anyway?"

First of all, I would never buy parts to hold them for a period of time, just in case they may sell. Even though protected, there are acquisition and holding costs and valuable shelf space cost compared to parts that turn 5 - 8 times a year. Most important, my job as Parts Manager was to buy parts to "sell" and not to "hold" them.

Acquisition and Holding Costs Include, (but not limited to); 
  • Computers, Data Transmission, & Software Required to Access Inventory.
  • Facilities Access to Obtain Inventory.
  • Personnel to Facilitate and Acquire Inventory.
  • Required Office Supplies to Review, Edit and Record Inventory
  • Storage Space & Maintenance to Store Unsold Inventory
  • Insurance Costs of Inventory Value
  • Price of Damaged Inventory
  • Less Cash Available for Other Business Costs
  • Ordering and Shortage Costs
  • Rent or Equivalent to Maintain Inventory 
The process of "Managing Parts Returns" cannot be taken lightly, but as you can see, it can also be an indicator to a lot more than we may think. In my opinion, the worst thing we could do when it comes down to "Managing Parts Returns" is to add to the already existing procedure that we can't avoid.

Final Question....

"Are You Buying Parts Only To Return Them Down The Road?"

"I don't know about anyone else out there, but that just doesn't make logical sense to me..." 

If you want to learn more about ACG Smart Parts "Eight Habits of Highly Successful Parts Managers", visit our website @ www.smartpartstraining.com, or...just pick up the phone and call me at (786) 521 - 1720...After all, not knowing is not worth not "fixing" it...

 



















Wednesday, October 9, 2019

October 2019: "Show Me How To Fix It!" - Part Five: First Time Off Shelf Fill Rates

Here we are in October and down to our last in our five parts series titled: "Show Me How To Fix It!" and in my opinion, THE most important Parts Key Performance Indicator, (KPI) which is "First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rates. Other than parts profitability, this one stands alone in determining just how well the parts inventory asset is performing.

Having the "Right Parts At The Right Time" is crucial not only for parts profitability, it is also crucial to supporting the Service Department's Overall Productivity, Customer Satisfaction and Overall Dealer Retention.

In many dealerships today, Parts Departments fail to meet expected "First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rates of 85% or higher. As a matter of fact, many fail to even achieve a "First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rate of even 35%. 

So, what does this mean?...

Quite simply, it means that the customer, or technician is only getting their parts on first visit approximately 35% of the time. The time spent bringing a vehicle in the shop, racking the vehicle and diagnosing the vehicle all comes to a halt if the part is not on the shelf on first visit.

Unlike parts, time is a perishable inventory that we can never get back so all the time spent right up to acquiring the part is gone. At this point, the vehicle is either taken off the rack, pushed or driven outside, only to bring it back in at a later time or day to repeat the process.

Studies have shown that low "First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rates of 30% - 50% can impact Service Productivity in a negative way anywhere from 15% to 25% overall. Not only that, if we are losing productivity, we are also losing Parts & Labor Sales and Gross Profits.

When we do the math to those percentages in Lost Productivity, then tack on our Parts to Labor Ratio numbers, Sales & Profitability, the Lost Gross Profit Annually can add up to hundreds of thousands of dollars in many dealerships today. I know this because I have done the math in many dealerships.

Now that we know how the end results can negatively impact all these areas, we now come to the all important million dollar question....

"How Do We Fix It?"....

As I have mentioned in many previous articles, in order to "fix" any problem or concern, we first have to identify the problem or concern first. How did we get to this point?, or even...How do I even start to move the needle upwards in achieving desired "First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rate Levels?

I believe it all starts by the fact that we are really confusing the issue in the first place. There are so many "fill rate" definitions, acronyms, opinions, calculations and terminologies out there, so why wouldn't we all be confused?

Here is a sampling, or list of terminologies out there given to us by various Dealer Management Systems, (DMS), industry analysts, consultants, parts managers, etc.
  • Off Shelf Fill Rate, (OSF)
  • Sales to Stock Ratio
  • Sales to Cost Ratio
  • Purchase to Sales Ratio
  • Stock Order Performance
  • Demand Fill Analysis
  • Same Day Fill Rate, (SDF)
  • Level of Service
  • Purchase to Fill Ratio
  • Fill Rate Analysis
Who wouldn't be confused?....which one of these is my "First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rate?

There are probably a lot more that I haven't mention, but I think you understand my point. Unfortunately, many dealer owners and even Parts Managers don't even know which one actually indicates the "First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rate. Actually, only a couple of the above examples come  somewhat close to the actual "First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rate.

The first thing that we have to determine is....

"What parts actually qualify to be even considered parts that sell on a first time basis and CAN be considered into the calculation of "First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rate?"

Here's my common sense approach to all this confusion...

In the first place, there are only two reasons why we don't have the parts on the shelf. The first one is that we never stocked the part in the first place and the second one is that we do stock the part, but we ran out. We definitely don't want the second one to happen as running out of a Normal Stocking Part is a very bad thing and embarrassing for the Parts Manager in my opinion.

If the above is factual information, which I believe it is, the parts that I am most likely to sell on a "first time" basis would be my Normal Stocking Parts on the shelf unless I experience a "stock out" situation. That being said, I would definitely consider these parts sales in my "First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rate Calculation, less those "stock out" situations.

If I am posting correctly and I do experience a "stock out" situation on a Normal Stocking Part and have to purchase a Normal Stocking Part as an outside purchase, whether another vendor or the manufacturer, I should be recording an Emergency Purchases on those rare occasions. Then I can subtract my Emergency Purchases from my "First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rate Calculation.

There are always going to be "exceptions to the rule" when calculating "First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rates. One example would be a part that I Special Ordered for a customer and they never picked the part up for whatever reason, thus becoming a Non-Stock part on the shelf. 

Then, another customer comes in and needs that same part down the road and I "technically" had the part on first visit, but because it is a Non-Stock Part, it will not figure into my "First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rate, but it will figure into my Same Day Fill Rate, (SDF)

Another example in reverse, I run out of a Normal Stocking Part and have to order it from the manufacturer, or vendor and I DON'T record an Emergency Purchase, technically that part is sold and recorded into the "First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rate calculation, even though it wasn't there on first visit.

In my opinion, Same Day Fill Rates are important, but if I have to wait 4-5 hours for that part, even though it's filled the "same day", I still lose valuable time inventory in the shop. That being said, achieving the correct "First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rate percentages is my prime objective as Parts Manager and not necessarily just focusing on "Same Day" Fill Rate, (SDF). 

Measuring Same Day Fill is good, but not good enough in some circumstances when we start drilling down and measuring Overall Shop Productivity. If the stall is down for a time and not producing, even measuring Same Day Fill Rate doesn't matter in many cases.

Okay!...Now Let's look at the definitions of "Fill Rates" in general!...

Overall Off Shelf Fill Rate:

The Overall Off Shelf Fill Rate can also be called Level of Service, Demand Fill Analysis, OSF, or any other acronym or definition that various Dealer Management Systems, (DMS) may call it. The definition though should still be the same, which is as follows;

"Total Sales at Cost Minus Lost Sales and Emergency Purchases"

As you can see with this simple definition, it doesn't matter whether the order gets filled today, tomorrow, next week or next year, the definition just indicates that the "demand" was filled, less Lost Sales and Emergency Purchases.

Bad part of this equation, or "Smoking Gun" if you will is that if I don't report Lost Sales and/or Emergency Purchases, I could look like a hero, but I would be just fooling myself with a very high and inaccurate (almost 100%) Overall Off Shelf Fill Rate. This category, unfortunately gets confused with "First Time Off Shelf Fill Rate numbers.

If and when that happens and I'm looking like a hero, you really have to ask yourself a question....

"Am I really providing parts to my customers on a First Time basis almost 100% of the time?"

The obvious answer is "No"....

Same Day Fill Rate:

The definition of Same Day Fill Rate is pretty obvious as these parts sales, whether Normal Stocking or Non-Stocking parts have to be filled in the same day of the request and invoiced on a repair order or counter sales ticket.

"Total Parts Sales at Cost Invoiced and Sold the Same Day of Request"


Again, an important measurement that we should monitor, but not the prime objective. Filling the demand the same day is a good thing, but how much time did it take to fill that order that same day. Plus, Same Day Fill Rates also include "First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rate Parts which could mask my overall objective. 

Lastly...

"First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rate:

Okay!....here's where some may differ from my definition of "First Time" Off Shelf Rates, but I have to look at this in a common sense approach and not from the perspective of a particular Dealer Management System, (DMS). Keep in mind that proper posting of Emergency Purchases are crucial to getting the right "First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rate calculation.

"Total Sales at Cost of Normal Stocking Parts Minus Emergency Purchases at Cost Divided By Total Sales at Cost"

Another extremely important thing to keep in mind is that all parts need to be in the proper "stocking status" category of Normal Stocking Parts and Non-Stock parts in the first place. Normal Stocking Parts meaning that these parts have met the DMS Phase-In Criteria and Non-Stock Parts that have not met Phase-In Criteria.

Lost Sales do not figure into this equation because Lost Sales only play a part in the "demand" category which means that Lost Sales are part of the Phase-In Process and not the sales category. Once a part phases in from total demands, (Sales and Lost Sales), then the "First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rate takes over from Sales at Cost of Normal Stocking Parts less Emergency Purchases.

Emergency Purchases DO play a heavy role in the proper "First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rate Calculations as Emergency Purchases of especially Normal Stocking Parts that we run out of need to be "backed out" of "First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rate Calculations for obvious reasons....After all, I did not have it the first time...whether I normally stock the part or not!

Bottom line is that if we do want to measure our TRUE "First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rates, we need to have a common sense approach in order to get common sense results. Don't let your Dealer Management System, (DMS) dictate results that may not be true.

Make sure that your DMS has ALL your parts categorized properly as Normal Stocking Parts vs. Non-Stock Parts, especially if you are utilizing a Manufacturers Vendor Managed Inventory, (VMI) which allows parts to enter your inventory as "Non-Stock" inventory.

Accepting these parts into inventory that have not met your DMS Phase-In Criteria will result in adding more "Non-Stock" Parts into your inventory that will not qualify in "First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rate Calculations as they are technically "Non-Stock" Parts, even though you are purchasing these parts to replenish inventory.

If you do accept VMI Parts into your inventory, you MUST manually change the stocking status to "Normal Stocking Parts" in order for the system to properly calculate your TRUE "First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rate. Keep it simple and keep it right....

If you want accurate "First Time" Off Shelf Fill Rate Results, and have the "Right Parts At The Right Time"....85% - 90% of the time?...you have to "Get It Right And Do It Right The First Time!"

If you want to learn more about ACG Smart Parts "Eight Habits of Highly Successful Parts Managers", visit our website @ www.smartpartstraining.com, or...just pick up the phone and call me at (786) 521 - 1720...After all, not knowing is not worth not "fixing" it...























...




Wednesday, September 4, 2019

September 2019: "Show Me How To Fix It!" - Part Four: Parts Gross & True Turns

When we start talking about "Parts Gross & True Turns", we are actually referring to Parts "Definition of Terms", which is Habit Number Two in ACG Smart Parts "Eight Habits of Highly Successful Parts Managers".

Having the proper "Definition of Terms" is vital when we are measuring the Parts Departments Inventory Performance. We already know that Sales & Profitability ultimately determines the success of the Parts Department much like it does with all the other departments within the automotive dealership, but the Parts Department also has to perform as the dealers number two asset.

Monitoring and measuring the Parts Departments "Gross & True Turns" is almost like measuring the dealers Parts Financial Net Profit Analysis. Similar to the dealers New & Used Vehicle Inventory, managing the Parts Inventory could be a "make it or break it" category that could determine the ultimate success or demise of the dealership.

In all actuality, the only two people in the dealership that can determine if the dealer "sinks or swims" are the Used Vehicle Manager and the Parts Manager. Mis-management in one or both departments could mean the end of business for the owner.

Measuring "Parts Gross & True Turns" incorporates the definition itself, proper calculation and managing these terms to their potential. We also need to know what drives these "Definition of Terms" and of course, how to manage them in the right direction.

Let start out with the proper definition of both these terms and why each one is important. I will also provide a "Layman's Term" in regards of each one of these definitions, both Gross & True Turns...

First....let's start with "Parts Annual Gross Turns"....

"Total Sales At Cost For The Last Twelve Months - Divided By - Average Inventory Investment For The Last Twelve Months"

Sounds pretty simple right?....Let me give you the "Layman's Term" of how we can actually define the "Gross Terms" calculation. The example I will use is if I had an average monthly Parts Inventory Value of $100,000.00 along with average parts sales at cost of $100,000.00 over the last twelve months.

Here's what we would end up with for annual Parts Gross Turns;

Average Monthly Parts Sales at Cost = $100,000.00 X 12 Months = $1,200,000.00 - Divided By - Average Parts Inventory of $100, 000.00 = 12 "Gross Turns" Annually.

Here's the key thing to remember in this equation...the above calculation refers to average "parts sales at cost" monthly, then annualized for a total of $1,200,000.00. The equation DOES NOT say if these parts sales at cost are actually from my own inventory.

In theory, I could actually sell $100,000.00 in part sales at cost without even selling one single dollar at cost from my own inventory. I could actually have $100,000.00 in "dead inventory" and had to buy all those parts that I sold at cost from outside sources.

So, Why is Measuring "Gross Turns" So Important?

Measuring "Parts Gross Turns" is extremely important because it gives us our marketability number as far as just how much I should carry in "Inventory Dollars" to support my market area. The current industry guideline for Parts Annual Gross Turns is "8 Gross Turns". So, how did they come up with that number?....

If we use the above example that resulted in 12 Annual "Gross Turns", and then apply the industry standard, or guideline of 8 Gross Turns, we will come up with the following results;

Annual Sales At Cost = $1,200,000.00 - Divided By - 8, (Industry Guideline) = $150,000.00.

In this example, this would mean that my "Desired Inventory Value" should be $150,000.00, whether the inventory "value" was junk or not. It would also represent that my "Months Supply" of parts at cost would be 45 Days, or a 1.5 Months Supply, ($1,200,000.00 - Divided By 8 Gross Turns)....again, industry guidelines, much like the New Vehicle Inventory.

So, if we use the above example again where we experienced an annual "Gross Turn" of 12, our Parts Inventory would be "under-stocked" in value by $50,000.00, because the actual "Gross Turns" were too high at 12 "Gross Turns" annually.

If "Gross Turns" are too high, again, much like the example used above, the end result could be Lost Sales from lack of inventory and perhaps higher costs due to chasing parts at a higher cost and Lost Service Productivity. Again...much like losing sales and gross in the front end Sales Department for not having the right vehicle on the lot at the right time.

This is why some dealers don't get it because they focus more on "Parts Annual Gross Turns" and they seem to like it when their Parts Department experiences higher "Gross Turns", when it actuality, they are losing sales and gross. This is where they should shift their focus on to "Parts Annual True Turns". That being said?...

Let's Move On To "Parts Annual TRUE Turns"...

For simplicity reasons....we will be using the same above example in our "Parts Annual True Turn" calculations, but with just a little twist. But, before we get to that, let's look at the actual "Parts Annual True Turn" definition....

"Total Stock Order Receipts For The Last Twelve Months - Divided By - Sales At Cost For The Last Twelve Months - Divided By - Average Inventory Investment For The Last Twelve Months".

If you figured that one on your own, you are a better person than I am. Calculating "Annual Parts TRUE Turn" depends highly on proper ordering and receipting on parts that are actually ordered and receipted as "Stock Order Purchases. 

In other words, we must not fool ourselves by ordering and receipting parts that may be actually "Non-Stock" parts, or "Special Orders" parts, just because we added those parts to our "Daily Stock Order". If we did do that, we would be falsely counting those parts in the "Parts True Turn" calculation.

We have to ensure that "Non-Stock" and "Special Order" parts are separated from what we truly order to replenish parts for re-stocking purposes that have met all "phase-in" criteria for "Normal Stocking Parts".

Now that we have covered that part, let's look at the same above example that will have a little twist, but will give us our actual "Parts True Turn" number. Also, keep in mind that the industry standard, or guideline on "Parts Annual True Turn" is 5.

"Total Parts Stock Order Receipts For The Last 12 Months = $600,000.00 - Divided By - Total Sales At Cost For The Last 12 Months = $1,200,000.00 - Divided By - Average Monthly Inventory Investment For The Last 12 Months - $100,000.00 = 6 "Parts Annual True Turns".

In other words, again, in "Layman's Terms", the only thing that changed from the "Gross Turns" calculation is that $50,000.00 of $100,000.00 in the Total Sales at Cost each month on average were from actual parts that were considered "Normal Stocking Parts", and not just "total" Sales at Cost, which as I mentioned, could technically come from outside sources.

So now that we see that the above example resulted in 6 annual "Parts True Turns", once again, we are running out of stocking parts much to quickly as the industry standard, or guideline is 5 "Parts Annual True Turns". Once again, resulting in lost gross and expense from outside purchases and potential Lost Sales.

"So, How Do The Previous Parts Of This Series Play A Part In Parts Gross & True Turns?"

First of all, before we clue you into how the first three parts of the series actually play into the actual "Parts Annual Gross & True Turns", let's first say that parts Sales & Gross Profit determines the success of the Parts Department. After all, we are in business to make a profit, first and foremost.

Beyond that though, it's actual "parts demand" that will determine just what we have on the shelf and most important, what we have on the shelf on a "First Time" basis. Having the "Right Part At The Right Time" determines how efficient the Parts Department will perform.

So Now...Let's Look At Part One In The Series, ("Lost Sales") Plays A Part in "Parts Gross & True Turns"....

We determined earlier that the only way a part enters our DMS is the recording of "parts demands", with the exceptions only given to "manual orders" where the Parts Manager orders parts for stock without measuring "demands" that are provided by posting Sales and Lost Sales. 

Keep in mind that we do not have parts for only two reasons...we either never stocked the part in the first place, or we simply ran out. Parts demands only come from two areas....Sales and Lost Sales, which create the "parts demand". 

Another note, if we are not reporting Lost Sales at industry standards, or guidelines, we are missing lots of opportunity on reported demands into the DMS, which leads us to Part Two's contribution in the series, which is "Parts Phase-In & Phase-Out Criteria".

Now...Let's Look At How Parts "Phase-In & Phase-Out Criteria" Plays Into "Parts Annual Gross & True Turns"...

Tracking "parts demands" is how parts "qualify" to enter our "House Of Inventory" in the first place. Once the "Phase-In Criteria" is met, which means the total number of demands, and/or demands in a month that a part achieves, (Sales & Lost Sales) over a given period of time, allows the part to meet the Parts Manager's Stocking Criteria.

Parts "Phase-In" in itself can be a huge determining factor on what parts need to be considered for "Normal Stocking Status". Choosing the right criteria is most important in determining what parts eventually hit the shelves.

Another thing to keep in mind that even if a part meets "Phase-In" criteria, it doesn't mean that these parts simply "jump on the shelves". The Parts Manager has the ultimate decision whether to stock the part(s) or not. This is why I prefer a more aggressive "Phase-In" criteria which allows me to "see" the parts for potential "Normal Stocking Criteria". After all...I can't manage what I can't see...

Once the Parts Manager decides to allow parts to "Phase-In"...the job of parts "Phase-In" is complete. Now that these parts are allowed to "Phase-In" by the Parts Manager, it's now up to the "Parts Stocking Levels" to take over until parts meet parts "Phase-Out" criteria...

"So, How Do The Parts "Stocking Levels" Play A Part In Parts "Annual Gross & True Turns?"

The combination of these three KPI's...Lost Sales, Parts Phase-In/Phase-Out and Stocking Criteria are key ingredients to "Fixing" our "Parts Annual Gross & True Turns". The "Parts Annual Gross & True Turns" are actually result areas that measures just how well we utilize "Parts Lost Sales Reporting, "Parts Phase-In/Phase-Out Criteria and "Stocking Levels".

The last of which is our parts "Stocking Levels". Choosing the right Best Reorder Points, (BRP, or Low Days Supply) and Best Stocking Levels, (BSL, or High Days Supply) determines the proper amount of parts inventory that we have on the shelf so we don't run out, or have too much.

Doing the math is key into determining these criteria points of the low points and the high points. Quite simply, and as an example, if a part sells 12 times a year, it is due to sell once every 30 days on average. Thus, the Best Reorder Point, (BRP, Low Days Supply) is set at 30 days.

One key thing to remember is that "Days Supply", (BRP & BSL) does not mean quantity. It just determines when to reorder and what the best stocking level should be. Quantity is determined by average annual piece sales, whether "weighted" annually, or measured by percentage over a number of days or months.

Fixing "Parts Annual Gross & True Turns" requires the "Smart Parts" Manager to know, understand, measure, modify and yes...finally "Fix" what it takes to get "Desired Results". 

If you want to learn more about ACG Smart Parts "Eight Habits of Highly Successful Parts Managers", visit our website @ www.smartpartstraining.com, or...just pick up the phone and call me at (786) 521 - 1720...After all, not knowing is not worth not "fixing" it...












































Monday, August 5, 2019

August 2019: "Show Me How To Fix It!" - Part Three: Managing Stocking Levels

As we move on to part three in our five part series titled, "Show Me How To Fix It!", managing Stocking Levels, in my opinion requires constant maintenance, unless your are fortunate enough to have a Dealer Management System, (DMS) that automatically adjusts and manages Stocking Levels through predetermined algorithms.

These predetermined algorithms measure Dynamic Days Supply, (DDS) and Weighted Daily Demand, (WDD) instead of most Dealer Management Systems, (DMS) that utilize "ABC Source Ranking" by Annual Piece Sales. The DDS and WDD are constantly working in the system to ensure proper Stocking Levels.

ABC Source Ranking requires the Parts Manager or the System Administrator to create separate sources with annual piece sales ranges along with the proper Low and High Days Supply for each annual piece sale range.

To my knowledge, there are only a couple Dealer Management Systems, (DMS) out there that provide this option that measures DDS and WDD automatically. For most other systems though, we, as Parts Managers have to set up our own Stocking Levels for each one of our Parts Sources in the DMS via ABC Source Ranking.

Unfortunately, many Parts Managers out there do not even know how to "properly" set up their Parts Sources with the appropriate Best Reorder Points, (BRP, or "Low Days Supply") and Best Stocking Levels, (BSL, or High Days Supply). 

As I've mentioned many times in previous articles, most Parts Managers that I have met are very intelligent and very qualified to manage their Parts Departments. But when it comes down to these five Key Performance Indicators, (KPI's) that we are focusing on, many Parts Managers haven't had the opportunity to "learn" them.

As a matter of fact, many dealership Parts Departments that I have visited and still visiting today have the same set ups on Phase-In/Phase-Out Criteria and Stocking Levels that they had years ago. Some even had the same initial setups that they had when their DMS was initially installed well over twenty years ago!

Not only that, if you throw in the Manufacturer's Vendor Managed Inventory, (VMS) setups, (if offered), now you have the perfect recipe for disaster. The most "imperfect" scenario of running out of the parts you need the most and overstocking of parts you don't need has just been born.

So, how do we get this ship turned around and going in the right direction? 

First of all, and before we get down to "fixing" the problem, we have to know how these Stocking Levels work in the first place. We have to also know that one of the biggest, if not the biggest factor in all this is how many times a part sells over the course of a year, also known as "annual piece sales".

In addition to factoring in our "annual piece sales", we also have to fine tune it even further by knowing the "peaks and valleys" of "annual piece sales". Once we categorize, or group these parts together within the same "annual piece sales" range, we can then set the appropriate BRP's and BSL's, or Low and High Days Supply.

One of the ways that I simplify what I'm referring to, especially when I have the Dealer Principle in the room, is by the following scenario...

I would start off by asking the dealer what is their highest selling new vehicle on the lot was as well as their lowest selling new vehicle on the lot. After I received the answer on both the high and the low, my next question would be...

"Would you have the same number, or inventory of those two vehicles on the lot at the same time?" 

Of course, the answer would be "No", and once again I would ask "Why not?...

The final answer was obvious as they would run out of the new vehicles that they sold the most as well as having too many of the new vehicles that sold the least, resulting in overstocked, or "over-aged" units that they would have to get rid of.

The worst part of that scenario is that they would have to chase down, or "dealer swap" the new vehicle that they ran out of, resulting in lower gross profits, or even potentially losing the sale in the first place as the customer would shop elsewhere.

The similarities between selling vehicles and selling parts is really no different except for the number of parts versus the number of vehicles. The irony is that dealers would definitely "fix" the new vehicle inventory, but many don't put the same priority on their Parts Department.

Okay!....Let's Get Down To Fixing It!

Fixing any problem always starts with identifying the problem and the root causes that lead us to undesirable results. If the Parts Department is experiencing too many "stock out" situations and experiencing never ending obsolescence, you can be assured that we have a situation much like the above new vehicle scenario.

The first step in "fixing" Stocking Levels is to separate the parts inventory into separate sources or "groups" that have similar "annual piece sales" ranges, referred to as "ABC Source Ranking". Each piece sale range requires different setups for Best Reorder Points, (BRP or Low Days Supply) and Best Stocking Levels, (BSL or High Days Supply).

For example, if a part sells only 12 times a year sells on average once a month, or .03 times per day, (WDD). A month contains 30 days on average, so the Best Reorder Point, or Low Days Supply on that part would be 30. That's the math portion which is irrefutable, but it's the Best Stocking Level, or High Days Supply setting that is most important.

According to Mike Nicoles, (who I agree with), the Best Stocking Level, or High Days Supply should be set at 50% to 150% of the Best Reorder Point, or Low Days Supply. That being said and with the above example, my Best Reorder Point, or Low Days Supply would be 30, and my Best Stocking Level or High Days Supply would be 45, 60 or 75.

The "constant" number in all this is the Best Reorder Point or Low Days Supply as that is basic math. If I had a part that sold 100 times a year, that would mean my Best Reorder Point, or Low Days Supply would be 4, (100 divided by 365 days a year = 3.65, rounded up to 4). 

Faster moving parts always carry a Lower Reorder Point or Days Supply, which confuses many, but we have to remember that "Low Days Supply" or "Reorder Point" doesn't mean quantity as quantities vary in a given "Low Days Supply" or "Reorder Point" of any part number. 

A Four Days Supply of a part that sells 100 times a year just means when I get down to 4 Days Supply, I am down to a quantity of 4 parts left, I need to reorder back up to my Best Stocking Level, which would be reordering back up to 6, 8 or 10, (50% - 150% of Low Days Supply, BRP).

Let's use a different annual piece sale range....let's say that I have a part that sells 865 times a year,  meaning that I sell on average, 2.37 of that part per day, (WDD of 2.37 rounded up to 3). When I get down to a Four Days Supply, 3 X 4 = 12, (our BRP), I then need to order back up to my BSL, which would be 18, 24 or 32, which would be 50% - 150% of my BRP, or Low Days Supply.

The trick is managing which Best Stocking Level, (BSL) or High Days Supply to use...50%, 100%, or 150% and at what time of year. I could sell a part 12 times a year, but what if it was an Air Conditioning part that sold 12 times a year, but all sales were in three months out of the whole year?

This is why Managing Stocking Levels carries a high maintenance factor as we have to "manage" the parts annual activity during the "peaks and valleys" of the part's life cycle. We have to know when to increase and decrease the BSL, or High Days Supply.

Lead Time is also a factor in calculating Best Reorder Points, or Low Days Supply. Usually the lowest or minimum amount of "Lead Time" is 3, or perhaps even 4. One day to place the order, one day to receive the order and one day to post and "shelf" the order. This is why the lowest BRP, or Low Days Supply should never be less than 3 or 4, which I prefer 4.

We've looked at fast moving parts and how our BSL's, BRP, Low and High Days Supply should be set, but what about slow moving parts? After all, we don't want to get stuck with them after they phase out, so how do we prevent those situations?

As you might have guessed, if fast moving parts carry a Lower Days Supply, (BRP), then slower moving parts need to carry a Higher Days Supply, or BRP. Sounds kind of opposite, but it's true and remember what I wrote earlier...."Low Days Supply, or Reorder Points Don't Mean Quantity as Quantities Vary!"

In other words, if I have a part that only sells 3 times a year...a part that just barely meets phase-in requirements, sells only on average every 120 days approximately. So, my BRP, or Low Days Supply, or Best Reorder Point, BRP would be set at 120 Days. My Best Stocking Level, or High Days Supply would be set at 50% of the Low Days Supply, or Reorder Point which would be 180.

Even though my options of choosing my High Days Supply can be 50% - 150% of my Low Days Supply, I prefer the lower percentage as this part has low movement. If movement increases, then my Low Days Supply, or BRP would get lower and I would increase the percentage for better safety stock on my High Days Supply, or BSL.

So!...with all this happening all around us, how do we "manage" all these part numbers that are constantly changing from "peaks and valleys" to various "annual piece sales" ranges to different Best Reorder Points or Low Days Supply and various percentages on what should be my Best Stocking Level, or High Days Supply?....Enough Already!

The good news in all of this is that most, if not all Dealer Management Systems can automatically move these parts all around to different sources that carry the correct Stocking Levels for those parts with different "annual piece sales" ranges.

As parts sales increase and decrease throughout their life cycle, the DMS will automatically place them in the right source with the right Stocking Levels, both Low and High Days, or the right BRP and BSL. Keep in mind, even though the system will move these parts automatically, we still may have to adjust and modify from time to time for seasonal and "captured" piece sale ranges.

The trick, if any is to have the right amount of part sources, based on "annual piece sales" that connect to the system's "Default Source". The DMS "Default Source" is the main source that the system identifies with on all new parts that enter the system, whether they phase-in or not.

Once a part enters the system via way of the "Default Source", and once phased-in, it will then "feed down" to the proper "sub-source" that contains the appropriate Low and High Days Supply, (BRP/BSL) based on "annual piece sales". The system will move them back and forth, through ABC Source Ranking if necessary based on current averages at the end of each month.

Lastly and most importantly, doing the proper math on Low and High Days Supply, (BRP/BSL)  within these annual piece sales ranges is critical. Also, having the right number of sources for each annual piece sales range is equally important and I usually recommend at least eight for ABC Source Ranking by Piece Sales.

No matter what D.M.S. you may have, managing Stocking Levels is the most important Key Performance Indicator, (K.P.I.) out our Top Five, after the part phases into the system, that will insure that we have "the right part at the right time".


Dave Piecuch is the Vice President of Automotive Consultants Group Inc. and is the Head Coach for Smart PartsTMThe only "Results Based" High Return Training, Coaching, and Consulting company in the world!  Dave can be reached at Cell 786-521-1720 or E-mail at dave@smartservicetraining.com Vist our Website at www.smartpartstraining.com
































Monday, July 8, 2019

"Show Me How To Fix It!" - Part Two: Parts Phase-In/Phase-Out

It's still amazing to me that even today, many Parts Managers have not been exposed to the basics of Parts Inventory Management, which I refer to "Parts 101". The basics of "Parts 101" means those Parts Managers that have never had the opportunity to learn and "manage" industry guidelines, or how they came about in the first place. In their minds, they are just there.

Many may have had the opportunity to attend some Parts Manager Training offered by the manufacturer, or perhaps even from the various 20 Groups across the country, but many Parts Managers still don't know the basics. More importantly, how to "fix it" when it's broken. 

Even though we may receive an award or "certification of attendance", the only information provided by these various sources are guidelines and numbers on where we should be. In other words, they can tell you where you rank compared to industry guidelines, or what you're doing wrong, but there aren't many that can "Show Me How To Fix It!"

This actually reminds me of a commercial by a major corporation about the Dental Monitor Person who confirms the patient has a huge cavity and when asked by the patient..."Well, aren't you going to fix it Doc?"...the answer, of course was..."Oh no, I'm just the Dental Monitor and that is a huge cavity!"...or even about the one with the Bank Security Monitor declaring that there is a bank robbery.

Lastly, in this opening monologue and before we move on to Part Two of "Show Me How To Fix It" on Parts Phase-In/Phase-Out, I just want to say that many, if not all Parts Managers that I have met and worked with are very intelligent and talented. 

The only thing missing, in my opinion is information. No one has ever "shared" the right information to Parts Managers that I have been so fortunate to receive over the years. In addition to not receiving this valuable information, many of these "basics" have gone "under the radar" and even controlled to some degree by various manufacturers.

This is especially true with Parts Phase-In & Phase-Out Parameters. How a part enters in to the inventory and eventually phases out of our inventory is controlled primarily on these parameters, no matter who is controlling them, or even if they are correct or not.

Either way, the Parts Manager MUST know how these parameters work and how they may need to be modified from time to time. They are not set ups that we "set and forget" as I will expand further as to why these, or any other parts set ups need to be modified from time to time.

Onward and Forward to Part Two!....Parts Phase-In/Phase-Out Parameters!

The first thing that we need to establish and not assume is the actual definition of Parts "Phase-In" and Parts "Phase-Out". Even though it may seem like common sense to most "Smart Parts" Readers, there are still Parts Managers out there that just don't know as I mentioned earlier. One of my favorite sayings is..."How do I know what I don't know?"...

Let's start out with Parts Phase-In:

"Demand or total number of demands, (sales and lost sales) reported in a period, (days or months) over a desired total number of periods, (days/months)"

In other words, if I wanted my "phase-in" period to be so many demands, or demand within a month of any kind, (sale or lost sale) over a course of a certain number of months, this would give me sufficient "evidence" to if I want to consider those parts that meet the criteria and to be considered "Normal Stocking Parts", or "Active Parts".

That be said, and with many different options out there as to how much demand, or demands within a number of days, or months over a course of time is where "Parts 101" comes in. We have to know the differences on how much, how often and how long we need to measure this information.

Most importantly, we need know how aggressive, or how moderate we want these parameters to be in the first place. We also have to remember that even though a part phases in, not matter what these parameters are, these parts do not simply "jump on the shelf". 

Although they may appear on a  Parts Phase-In Report, or on a D.M.S. Suggested Stock Order, the Parts Manager is the one who will ultimately make the choice on whether to stock the part(s) or not. The key thing to remember here is that we cannot manage what we cannot see and having this information in front of us is most important.

We also have to remember that the key word in Parts Phase-In and Phase-Out for that matter is "demand". The are only two types of "demand" or "hits" out there and that is the posting of Sales and Lost Sales. So now we see the importance of posting Lost Sales which we fixed in Part One of this series. 

If we don't post Lost Sales, we are missing a ton of demands and opportunities for potential future "Normal Stocking" or "Active Parts", which increases our "First Time Off Shelf Fill Rate". Actually, the proper posting of Lost Sales or lack of posting Lost Sales plays a key role in our initial Phase-In Parameters.

If our Lost Sales reporting is less than the required guideline of 5%-10% of total sales at cost, we would then set the parameters with a "lower" total demands required for phase-in. If my Lost Sales Reporting is at or above the 5%-10% of total sales at cost, we would then require "higher" total demands for phase-in as there would be more overall demands reported on Total Sales and Lost Sales.

Here are a few samples of "Phase-In" Parameters...

Aggressive Phase-In Parameters:

Parts with demand in 2 "separate" months out of the last 3 months with a "total" demand of 3.

Moderate Phase-In Parameters:

Parts with demand in 3 "separate" months out of the last 7 months with a "total" demand of 4.

Average Phase-In Parameters: (* Non-Aggressive)

Parts with demand in 2 "separate" months out of the last 6 months with a "total" demand of 3.

* Phase-In Parameters most often used by the manufacturer on their Vendor Managed Inventories, (V.M.I.), if offered.

Phase-In Parameters NOT to use:

Parts with demand in 3 "separate" months out of the last 12 months with a "total" demand of 4.

The danger with this last one is that you could possibly "phase-in" a "phase-out" part right out of the gate! One example is a part that may have demand in January and February, then another demand in December of the same year. 

The problem with this example is the other 9 straight months, the part has NO demand and in many cases, "Phase-Out" Parameters usually start anywhere from 7 months with no demand or more. Especially with the average parts life span of Normal Stocking Parts today is less than one year.

Believe it or not and unfortunately, these Phase-In Parameters are still widely used in many Parts Department today. Sadly, many of these Parts Managers don't even know it, and/or don't even know the ramifications to these parameters in the long term.

Lastly, and perhaps most important, if we are only using the manufacturer's guidelines on Parts Phase-In on their Vendor Managed Inventories, (V.M.I.) parameters AND don't even run our own D.M.S. Suggested Stock Orders, we are turning over total control on what we should be stocking.

Now onto Parts Phase-Out Parameters:

"Parts with no demand, (sales or lost sales reported) over a specific period, (days/months)."

Even though Parts Phase-Out Parameters are much simpler, they are extremely important. Knowing when we should be "alerted" on a part that hasn't had any demand over a certain period of time, (days/months) is as important as to when we should be "alerted" when we should possibly phasing-in a part.

The trick is...when should that "alert" time be and when should we consider actually return these parts to the manufacturer, or perhaps even scrap these parts that meet the Phase-Out period? I know what we DON'T want and that is the "alert" time period to be at 12 months.

If we wait until one year with no demands, it's too late. The chances of no future parts sales on these parts rises to an astonishing 98% chance according to Mike Nicoles, who is the most respected and revered Parts "Guru" for many years.

Quite simply, we should set our "alert" period, or Phase-Out Parameters anywhere from 7 to 10 months, pending the return policies from individual manufacturers. Even if the particular manufacturer requires a specific stocking period before return eligibility,  "Smart Parts" Managers still need to be "alerted" when parts hit the desired Phase-Out period.

"Fixing" our Parts Phase-In and Phase-Out Parameters can only happen if we know what these parameters represent in the overall picture of what parts we need to stock. Once these parts meet phase-in stocking requirements, the next step is "how much" and "how many" we should have on the shelf.

Speaking of "Stocking Levels", that will the subject in our August issue of ACG "Smart Parts". In Part Three, we will be "fixing" our Parts Stocking Levels. Fixing our Parts Phase-In and Phase-Out Parameters is just the beginning to having the Proper Set Ups & Controls in our Dealer Managements Systems, (D.M.S.).

If you haven't looked at these Set Ups & Controls in a while and/or you don't know where or how to manage them...you might want to ask yourself this one question....

"Who's Managing YOUR Parts Inventory?"... 


Dave Piecuch is the Vice President of Automotive Consultants Group Inc. and is the Head Coach for Smart PartsTMThe only "Results Based" High Return Training, Coaching, and Consulting company in the world!  Dave can be reached at Cell 786-521-1720 or E-mail at dave@smartservicetraining.com Vist our Website at www.smartpartstraining.com